In my paper I will present a sample translation and commentary on Philo, Agr. 1- 25, which I have written, in collaboration with D. T. Runia, as preparation for a full translation and commentary for the Philo of Alexandria Commentary Series. The paper will contain an analysis of the passage, in which I examine its main exegetical and philosophical themes, and also comments on detailed aspects. The most important issue is the opposition between a cultivator, of whom Noah is a symbol, and a worker of the earth, represented by Cain. Philo's elaboration of this theme and its philosophical background will be discussed.