Pouring Out God's Wrath: Libation Imagery in the Book of Revelation

As opposed to the positive use of libation language in other New Testament texts (e.g. Luke 22:20; Philippians 2:17), Revelation uses such imagery negatively. Wine is used alternately as a metaphor for God's wrath (e.g. 14:10) or is a luxury good associated with Babylon (e.g. 17:2; 18:13); the libations that are poured out in in the Bowl Visions of chapter 16 pour out plagues. This paper will query the implications of this negative imagery for early Christian hearers of this text and their own meal practices in Asia Minor.